Inner Mongolian Andesine?

The existence of a yellow or colorless gem quality andesine mine, capable of producing millions of carats of large crystals, in Inner Mongolia was and is unknown to any geological or mineralogical science reference or textbook. In fact, as recently published by Dr. Joel Arem, the geological conditions in which andesine crystals form precludes the possibility of large, gem quality andesine crystals in massive formations from existing. Even the Chinese sources for mineralogy and geology offer no evidence or historical record of any gem quality andesine mines or finds anywhere in Tibet or Inner Mongolia. And an exhaustive search by the ISG in gemological and mineralogical textbooks and reference books found absolutely no evidence, not the slightest bit, that large gem quality andesine crystals in large volume deposits capable of producing millions of carats of gem quality andesine have ever been found anywhere in the history of the earth.

And yet, when the Tibet andesine fraud was exposed, suddenly and inexplicably certain members of the gemstone community went to Inner Mongolia and Tibet and miraculously found gem quality andesine crystals that flew in the face of all known geological and mineralogical science.

One would think that a tremendously valuable and rare find such as a huge formation of large gem quality andesine crystals would be the subject of geological and mineralogical publications. But this claim of a one of a kind mine in the whole history of earth...has been totally ignored by the formal geology and mineralogy scientific community. Why?

Unlike other known gem producing mines, there was no rough available on the market, no study specimens to be found, and those who claimed to have visited the mines could offer no sound geological evidence to support their findings.

In other words, the evidence was simply: “I went to a place and I picked up an andesine from ground. Therefore there must be a natural andesine mine located there”.

That was the totality of the evidence provided by such names as Dr. Abduriyim, Richard H. Hughes, Brendan Laurs, Dana Schorr, and a myriad of others who tagged along on 2 or 3 published expeditions. And totally in the face of proper scientific protocol, friends of these people with names like Dr. Rossman and Dr. Emmett published articles relating to these “Inner Mongolia andesine mines” without following even high school science class protocol for scientific verification of claims made.  They only wrote based on what their friends told them, not proper scientific evidence that even a high school science teacher knows to follow.

But as time has evolved and more information obtained we learned the real reason why these people created the story about an Inner Mongolian andesine mine. The evidence says that this Inner Mongolian andesine story was contrived in an effort to deflect the real problem of the hoax that had been perpetrated by Abduriyim, King Star, Litto Gems, Richard W. Hughes and others. When the weight of the evidence regarding the diffusion of the claimed Tibet andesine become so great that the fact was no longer in question, the perpetrators invented the idea of a natural andesine mine in Inner Mongolia as a Chinese source of the treated material. This provided for two important issues:

  1. 1.It allowed the perpetrators to claim that there was a real Tibet andesine mine but that the properties were all exactly the same as the diffusion treated material from Inner Mongolia so you could not tell them apart. While this may sound absolutely absurd to most, even the AGTA, GIA, Gem-A and ICA climbed supported the story. The GIA became a huge supporter of this story to the point of having Shane McClure (and others) publish articles about this supposed “Inner Mongolian mine(s)”. End result was that all of the sellers of “Tibet andesine” could claim that their material was from the real mine since the story was that the real material and diffused material was exactly, mirror image copies in properties, appearance, color, etc.... inspite of one being natural and the other being treated, and oh yeah....they were formed 2000 miles apart. However, no actual proof of this mine was or has ever been produced.

  2. 2.It allowed Direct Shopping Network to have a basis to file an intimidation lawsuit against Robert James, President of the ISG who published the first gemological reports exposing this fraud, and Colored Stone magazine with editor David Federman who compromised the only media group willing to take on this situation and get the word out. Since the report went out that the treated Tibet andesine originated in Mexico, and as a result the Beijing 2008 Olympic Andesine was not from China but from Mexico, this created a huge problem for Direct Shopping Channel who sold the Olympic stones. The reaction was to create a bogus mine in Inner Mongolia, 2000 miles away from Tibet, that was claimed to produce the diffusion treated Tibet andesine.  This was the original basis for the lawsuit. Colored Stone eventually prevailed as the California Appeal Court ruled that DSN failed to provide proof of their claims. The case against Robert James is still in the appeals court process. The lawsuit was an effort by the major perpetrators to intimidate both Robert James and Colored Stone magazine into silencing them from reporting on this fraud. The effort at intimidation was not successful.

Although Dr. Abduriyim and Richard W. Hughes claimed to have visited this Inner Mongolian mine, not one piece of verified rough could be found up until the Tucson Gem Show of 2012. A three year intensive effort by the ISG to find any seller anywhere in China, including mining association, mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and our own contacts in China....produced not one soul who had ever heard of any andesine mine anywhere in Inner Mongolia. 

The ISG even offered a US$1100.00 reward for just one piece of Inner Mongolian andesine that could be verified based on origin and published properties. No one ever came forward with a specimen.

At the 2012 Tucson Gem Shows a panel discussion was held to continue the contrived story of natural Tibet and Inner Mongolian andesine mines. It was held by the follow people who are known as the core group in this andesine fiasco:


Richard W. Hughes, Dr. Ahmadjan Abduriyim, Dr. George Rossman, Dr. Adolph Peretti, Shane McClure, Dr. John Emmett and moderated by Dana Schorr.

At the end of this discussion panel a rather bold step was taken where this group handed out specimens that they verified as being natural, untreated andesine from both Tibet and Inner Mongolia.

Unfortunately, what they handed out was evidence of fraud.

After a careful review of these specimens we found clear evidence of treatment, and therefore fraud in our view since they are claimed to be all natural and without treatment. The specimen review is provided below. This is a basic, grass roots evaluation of the claimed Inner Mongolian material. The features you are about to see demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that this claimed Inner Mongolian andesine is actually treated feldspar. These images speak for themselves. While advanced testing of this material is currently underway, the features you are about to see verify that these stones have undergone some form of treatment that happens to be the exact same treatment features found in the claimed Tibet andesine.

We want to stress that the images below required (for gemological purposes) very high magnification to expose. The players in this fraud have counted on an industry where the normal magnification of gemological microscopes rarely goes over 60x, making the viewing of the diagnostic treatment features beyond the reach of most gem microscopes. Many, if not most of these features, are not viewable at under 90x, a point we believe the Tucson Discussion Panel members trusted would prohibit exposure of this situation. However, at the ISG office we are dealers for Meiji Techno, the world’s finest gemological microscope with standard magnification going to 90x and above with additional optical equipment at our disposal. We are also able to employ other Meiji Techno models used for petrology and other sciences that allowed us a far greater view of the condition of these stones provided by Dr. Rossman, Dr. Abduriyim and Richard W. Hughes. We believe these folks never anticipated anyone in the industry having the resources we have been able to bring together as what we, the ISG Community, have done here which is unique in this industry.

These images follow:

At the Tucson Discussion Panel meeting we received one set and were given 3 additional sets for testing by our ISG Community members.

We want to stress that these are directly from Dr. Abduriyim and Richard W. Hughes, and were provided as you read at left, untreated. This is a very clear statement of fact as claimed by Abduriyim, Hughes, Rossman, and everyone else sitting at the front table.

The first thing we noticed was that the stones had a pink crystalline material fused on to the surface of the otherwise yellow “andesine”. And melted into this glaze is a plethora of metal grains that appear to be the same as the known molybdenum grains we have found in the Tibet andesine due to the use of molybdenum crucibles in the treatment process.  Not only did we find these glazed pink crystals and pieces of metal, if you look at the red arrow in the image above you will see a small white thread that has been melted into this glassy glaze on the surface of the claimed natural Inner Mongolian andesine from Abduriyim and Hughes. Image above is 90x and below at 120x.

At left is the 120x image of the area around this piece of metal glazed into the pink and white crystal mass with the melted thread being seen on the left side of the image.

Threads do not naturally occur in gemstones. For this thread to be melted into this crystalline glaze mass required some form of treatment.

Following the observation method of high magnification inspection using multiple light sources and directions, we were able to move about the surfaces and find multiple features that could only have occurred due to some form of treatment of this otherwise yellow feldspar.

At left is one of the most dramatic and most diagnostic images that demonstrates specific features that indicate these stones have been subjected to a high heat treatment of some type.

In the image at left you see three important features:

  1. 1.The white glazed material is actually a mass of tiny quartz crystals that have been melted together into this glaze appearance.

  2. 2.The thread that is clearly visible is encrusted with this glassy glaze and has been melted into the surface of this claimed natural Inner Mongolian andesine.

  3. 3.The dark spots are once again the metal grains that match the properties of molybdenum based on our study of other molybdenum formations. (see Crucibles page)

Please again remember....the above specimen was supplied by Abduriyim, Hughes, et the Tucson Panel Discussion meeting in February 2012.

All of these features can be seen in the image above. This single image is sufficient to prove treatment of this claimed natural Inner Mongolian andesine.

At left you can see a mass of these crystals melted into a fissure in one of the Inner Mongolian andesine. At 120x this formation would be missed by most gemological microscopes but is quite evident using our Meiji Techno. These are melted or glazed into a surface reaching fracture in the feldspar crystal.

The melted glaze on these claimed Inner Mongolian andesine occurs both as a white crystalline glaze and a pinkish crystalline glaze. Both can be found on the specimens, sometimes separate and sometimes in a single location as seen at left under 90x.

More images of the glaze material are shown below. All are from high magnification surface review of the claimed Inner Mongolian andesine.

And throughout the surface areas of these stones we found the same pieces of metal. We need to stress that these metal grains are not flakes or shards that might come from normal material handling, but are rather partially fused rounded grains of metal that are melted into the surface of the crystal and melted as part of the glaze material. Below you see a 140x large metal grain melted into the crystallized glaze on the surface. This is not a natural occurrence but instead clear evidence of this feldspar having undergone some type of artificial treatment as these have been found in the same shapes, formations and melted condition in the Tibet andesine and now the Inner Mongolian andesine.


But there is more.

We actually found many threads melted into the surface glaze. Under high magnification we were able to find these threads with one end either embedded in the glaze or encrusted with the glaze material, or both. We will simply post the images below for your review..

Below left is a thread with one end melted into the glaze of crystals. Below right is a much larger piece of thread fused into the side of this surface breaking fissure by some of the pink colored melted crystals. Yet another piece of the metal is melted into the side of this opening.

Below left is a long thread that has a top end melted into the pink crystal glaze. The thread is encrusted with glassy glaze material. Below right is a blackened thread that is encrusted the full length with this glassy glaze material and fused at the left and center into the glaze material.

Below left is another high magnification image of a damaged thread that has one end fused or melted into the melted glaze material. Below right is a red thread that has been trapped by the melted fuze material. This thread was caught in the crystalline material before it was melted and caught in the middle and at the left end.

At left you are viewing inside a small opening in one of the Abduriyim and Hughes provided specimens. You are looking at 140x at a melted mass of crystals that has a large (at least in this image)  curved structure on the center right hand side. This is a thread that was trapped inside this fissure and melted into the glaze of crystals that were caught along with the tiny crystals. All were melted into a mass inside this opening in this feldspar crystal. Once again, this image could stand alone as proof of treatment of this claimed “Inner Mongolian andesine” from the Abduriyim and Hughes expeditions. But once again....there is more....

One of the dominant features of the claimed Tibet andesine is the unexplained fluorescence of the white crystalline glaze on the surface. This unusual reaction to long wave fluorescence is an earmark of the diffusion treated Tibet andesine and seen on virtually every specimen we have obtained from all three main sources: Abduriyim/Hughes, King Star, and Litto Gems. This fluorescent glaze is considered diagnostic by this office for treatment as the material has been analyzed by various independent scientific testing labs and found to contain elements that are not found in nature in the combinations and locations claimed. In other words the white glaze crystals that fluoresce on the surface of these crystals is a major sign of treatment.

At left is a specimen of claimed red Tibet andesine from Abduriyim/Hughes. It is easy to see the fluorescent reaction on the surface with the white glass shining in the ultraviolet light.

At left you see an Inner Mongolian andesine that was personally supplied by Abduriyim/Hughes that has the same features. This white glaze of melted crystals is fluorescent to long wave and is present on the known diffusion treated andesine, and on the claimed natural andesine from Tibet and Inner Mongolia supplied by Abduriyim and Hughes at the Tucson 2012 meeting. Once again, this feature provides evidence that the claimed natural Inner Mongolian andesine from the Abduriyim and Hughes expeditions have been subjected to virtually identical treatments.

We believe that this material is part of the 47 kilos of Mexican feldspar that we have tracked as having been shipped from Mexico to China and never seen again. Dr. George Rossman himself confirmed to us that Chinese dealer Andegem (who is at the heart of this whole thing) did buy the first 30K kilos. We believe that the first step of treatment of this material leaves the residual features we see above. This is just the first step, otherwise the material would be red. But it is suspected that as a first step of the treatment this step causes sodium to enter the stone and change the elemental make up that causes the material to become andesine feldspar. We have confirmed that the process is at least a two step process. The surface evidence and fluorescent reactions you see above are the artifacts left behind of the first step of the treatment process.

This brings into light, and into question, the validity and of the claims made by these expeditions. Simply stated, the gemstones speak for themselves. These features are not possible on natural gemstones. Only some form of treatment can put glazed crystals with threads and metal grains onto and into the surface of a gemstone.

But the question remains: What specifically is this treatment material. While we have had many claimed natural red and green Tibet andesine rough crystals to study, and have advanced study on these proving treatment, until now we have had no specimens claimed by Abduriyim and Richard W. Hughes to be Inner Mongolian. Now we do.

While the features above are diagnostic for treatment, (after all how did the threads get melted into the surface?) we realize that some will still question whether the yellow Inner Mongolian material has undergone the same treatment as the red material claimed to be from Tibet.

For this purpose the specimens you see here are at this time being sent to an independent scientific lab for elemental analysis. When that report is complete it will be added to this website.

Until that time, we believe the above prima facie evidence stands on its own merits to expose the hoax surrounding the claims of this Inner Mongolian material being natural and untreated. Clearly treatments have occurred which brings into serious question the entire story of Tibet and Inner Mongolian andesine.

It also brings into question the credibility of all of those who have participated in furthering this fraud.

That story is yet to be told. But will be told.


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